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Insipid Diabetes – Definition, Causes, Risk factors, Symptom, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Definition

Diabetes insipidus is a condition where the kidneys remove water from the body inappropriately from the circulatory system.

There are two forms of diabetes insipidus (ID):

Central insipid diabetes (central ID)
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): due to kidney cells in the kidneys that do not respond to ADH.

Causes

The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys. ADH occurs in the hypothalamus of the brain. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, stores and releases ADH. Central DI occurs when the hypothalamus does not produce enough ADH. DIN occurs when the kidney does not respond to ADH.

Some diabetes insipidus are caused by genetic problems that cause DIN or central DI. Others may develop after an injury or illness.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase the risk of diabetes insipidus include:

Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary due to surgery, infection, tumor or head injury.
Certain conditions (eg, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis).
Certain medications (eg, lithium): the most common cause of diabetes insipidus.
Nephropathy (eg, polycystic kidney disease).

Protein malnutrition

Certain conditions (eg, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia).

Symptom

Symptoms may include:

Increased urination, especially during the night.
Excessive thirst
Dehydration (increased heart rate, dry skin and mouth).

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical examination may be performed.

Tests may include:

Blood test
Electrolyte levels
Renal function tests
ADH levels
Blood sugar to detect diabetes mellitus
Urine analysis
Gravity or specific urine osmolality (measures how concentrated or diluted the urine is)
Analysis of urine volume to see how much urine is produced.
Water shortage test
It is only done under medical supervision
Urine production measured during a period of 24 hours
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the head: if central ID is suspected.

Treatment

Ask your doctor what is the best plan for you. The doctor will work with you to treat the underlying cause.

The treatment may include:

For the central DI: take a synthetic form of ADH
For DIN: follow a diet low in sodium, drink plenty of water, take a diuretic (water tablet).

Prevention

There are no known ways to prevent diabetes insipidus. Talk to your doctor right away if you have excessive urination or thirst.

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